By Kent H. McKnight, Vera B. McKnight, Roger Tory Peterson
Approximately all nature-oriented humans profess a love affair with the vegetation, yet just a constrained quantity admit to an identical ardour for mushrooms, except as a desk delicacy. a few humans could brush off them as «toadstools,» to be ranked with spiders, snakes, bats, and different issues that experience turn into symbolic of the darkish facet of existence.
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Extra resources for A Field Guide to Mushrooms: North America (Peterson Field Guide)
Plant J 11:883–890 36 T. Börner et al. 114. Iratni R, Baeza L, Andreeva A, Mache R, Lerbs-Mache S (1994) Regulation of rDNA transcription in chloroplasts: promoter exclusion by constitutive repression. Genes Dev 8:2928–2938 115. Iratni R, Diederich L, Harrak H, Bligny M, Lerbs-Mache S (1997) Organ-specific transcription of the rrn operon in spinach plastids. J Biol Chem 272:13676–13682 116. Ishikura K, Takaoka Y, Kato K, Sekine M, Yoshida K, Shinmyo A (1999) Expression of a foreign gene in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplast.
Changes in phosphorylation) . This could affect the folding and subsequent splicing of all chloroplast introns . In addition, it is well known that translation in bacterial systems can impact transcription rates, and recent data show that transcription and translation are physically linked in prokaryotes [40, 222]. To date, no evidence suggests that translation would be uncoupled from transcription in chloroplasts. Thus, if emerging transcripts are rapidly associating with ribosomes, the latter could drive into the intronic structures, almost certainly decreasing splicing.
Alterations of the Mg2+ concentrations in chloroplasts may offer a regulatory mechanism that is completely independent of protein co-factor activity. Group II introns fold into catalytically active conformations only in the presence of Mg2+ ions , and the concentration of free Mg2+ is dependent on chloroplast biogenesis and the activity of Mg2+ transporters in the chloroplast envelope . Thus, regulation of Mg2+ availability could also limit splicing. In summary, there is currently no direct evidence that introns benefit chloroplasts by regulating gene expression.