By Enrico Perla, Massimiliano Oldani
The variety of safety countermeasures opposed to user-land exploitation is at the upward thrust. due to this, kernel exploitation is turning into even more well known between make the most writers and attackers. fidgeting with the guts of the working process could be a risky online game: This publication covers the theoretical recommendations and methods had to enhance trustworthy and powerful kernel-level exploits and applies them to assorted working platforms (Linux, Solaris, Mac OS X, and Windows). Kernel exploits require either artwork and technology to accomplish. each OS has its quirks and so each make the most has to be molded to completely make the most its objective. This publication discusses the preferred OS families-UNIX derivatives, Mac OS X, and Windows-and easy methods to achieve entire keep watch over over them. ideas and strategies are provided categorically in order that even if a particularly specific take advantage of has been patched, the foundational info that you've learn may help you to jot down a more moderen, greater assault or a extra concrete layout and protective structure.
* Covers a number of working method households - UNIX derivatives, Mac OS X, Windows
* information universal eventualities comparable to usual reminiscence corruption (stack overflow, heap overflow, etc.) concerns, logical insects and race conditions
* gives you the reader from user-land exploitation to the realm of kernel-land (OS) exploits/attacks, with a selected specialize in the stairs that result in the production of profitable innovations, for you to provide to the reader whatever greater than only a set of tricks
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Extra resources for A Guide to Kernel Exploitation: Attacking the Core
The more precisely you can define and characterize these classes, the more accurate and reliable your exploiting techniques will be. This is the goal of the taxonomy we present in this chapter. UNINITIALIZED/NONVALIDATED/CORRUPTED POINTER DEREFERENCE Perhaps the most famous kernel bug class is the NULL pointer dereference. As every C manual states, a pointer is a variable that holds the address of another variable in memory. Each time the pointer is dereferenced, the value contained at the memory address it holds is retrieved.
By overflowing the counter and making it go back to 0, and by making a successful fget()/fdrop() pair of calls, the file descriptor structure will be freed, but we will still have many pointers to the now-empty structure under our control. This can lead to NULL/ trashed pointer dereference (if, for example, we attempt to close one of the other descriptors). Alternatively, it can be logically exploited thanks to the fact that kernel structures, once freed, will be reallocated in a future call and it is generally possible, depending on the subsystem, to control where this occurs.
PC PIPE BUF) return (EINVAL);  p >p retval = PIPE BUF; error = 0; break; […] out: fdrop(fp, td);  return (error); } The fpathconf() system call is used to retrieve information about a specific open file descriptor. Obviously, during the lifetime of the call, the kernel must ensure that the associated file structure is not cleared. This is achieved by getting a reference to the file descriptor structure via fget() at . A subsequent fdrop() will be executed at  on exit (or on some error condition).