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A History of the Crusades, Volume II: The Later Crusades, by Kenneth M. Setton, Robert Lee Wolff, Harry W. Hazard

By Kenneth M. Setton, Robert Lee Wolff, Harry W. Hazard

The six volumes of A background of the Crusades will stand because the definitive background of the Crusades, spanning 5 centuries, encompassing Jewish, Moslem, and Christian views, and containing a wealth of data and research of the heritage, politics, economics, and tradition of the medieval world.

 

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Sample text

Therefore, when analysing the impact of the war on Iran’s economy, not only should we compare and contrast the pre- and post-war changes, but also note the outcome of the Plan objectives. It is then that we can have a clearer picture of the consequences of the war. 3; Statistiques 1979–85; UN Department of International and Social Affairs (1979–81) Yearbook of World Energy Statistics; OECD 1984; 1986, No. 1; BP 1986. The impact of the war on oil production and exports The volume of oil production and exports has been subjected to much imbalance since the revolution and the start of the war.

6 Brazil 328 350 453 385 699 6 1 3 7 Others 5,728 5,882 5,048 4,133 3,050 41 23 15 29 (including Soviet Union and Eastern Europe)b Total non- 20,922 21,728 12,275 11,178 10,534 100 100 100 100 military imports Notes: a Excluding military-related imports. b Author’s calculation, all the percentages have been rounded up, thus totals may not add up to 100. Sources: IMFb 1980, 1983, 1986 IMFa 1986 Arab financiers of Iraq’s war efforts changed their tactics by reducing their direct ‘loan’ of cash to Iraq (except for the payments of arms deliveries by the Soviet Union which is directly paid for by the Saudis) in favour of exporting 300,000 barrels of oil a day from the Neutral Zone on behalf of Iraq (Stauffer 1985).

By 1986, total imports had fallen further to only $8,847 million (IMF 1987b). Such a decline in imports and the fact that Iraq’s industrialization, like that of Iran, has been based on ‘dependent capitalism’ and the import-substitution strategy of development, with its massive import requirements, must have created many problems and set-backs in the economy. The economic consequences of the Gulf war 36 At this point, it should be noted that the government of Iraq has not published much data and information on different aspects of the economy since the war.

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