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A Theory of Contestation by Antje Wiener

By Antje Wiener

The Theory of Contestation advances serious norms study in diplomacy. It scrutinises the makes use of of ‘contestation’ in diplomacy theories with reference to its descriptive and normative power. subsequently, serious investigations into diplomacy are carried out in response to 3 pondering instruments from public philosophy and the social sciences: The normativity premise, the variety premise and cultural cosmopolitanism. The ensuing idea of contestation includes 4 major beneficial properties, specifically kinds of norms, modes of contestation, segments of norms and the cycle of contestation. the speculation distinguishes among the main of contestedness and the perform of contestation and argues that, if contestedness is accredited as a meta-organising precept of worldwide governance, normal entry to contestation for all concerned stakeholders will increase valid governance within the international realm.

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1999). 6 The theory of contestation extends along that latter strand of constructivism 6 For recent contributions see Deitelhoff and Zimmermann (2013), Müller and Wunderlich (2013); for early critical constructivists see the work of Fritz Kratochwil, Jutta Weldes, Jennifer Milliken, Anna Leander and Chris Reus-Smit. 24 2 The Normativity Premise To summarise, the interest in human rights started two decades of constructivist norms research in international relations theory in the 1980s. According to conventional constructivists the social recognition of norms was conceptualised as habitual rather than cognitive.

Conventional constructivists explain norm implementation with reference to the ‘socialisation’, understood as a process that socialises individuals into an existing group with a given identity, and assume that therefore social learning in international organisations generates appropriateness (Checkel 2000; Schimmelfennig 2000). If that did not suffice, blaming and shaming were considered the political instruments to enhance compliance through pressure or even coercion applied by advocacy groups (see the previous section).

While taking into account transnational social movement organisation and non-state actors’ increasingly important part in global conflicts (compare, for instance, Keck and Sikkink 1998; Benford 2011), the ‘‘logic of arguing,’’ which introduced the specific emphasis on legitimacy, had little to say on the quality of the norms themselves. Subsequently, the normative aspect of norms remained under-researched, while state behaviour in relation with norms received the main attention from students of international relations.

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