By Rafiq Islam, S.H. Moussavizadegan, Shabbir Mustafiz, Jamal H. Abou-Kassem
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Extra resources for Advanced Petroleum Reservoir Simulation (Wiley-Scrivener)
The fundamental question to be answered in modeling fracture flow is the validity of the governing equations used. The conventional approach involves the use of dual-porosity, dual permeability models for simulating flow through fractures. Choi et al (1997) demonstrated that the conventional use of Darcy's law in both fracture and matrix of the fractured system is not adequate. 16 ADVANCED PETROLEUM RESERVOIR SIMULATION Instead, they proposed the use of the Forchheimer model in the fracture while maintaining Darcy's law in the matrix.
Therefore, political constraints should be identified as the primary variable in energy pricing (Zatzman and Islam, 2005). The new model must also focus on the integration of pricing and qualitative controls in the abatement of cost-effective reductions in energy related C 0 2 emissions. Worldwide demand for energy is increasing faster than ever (Dung and Piracha, 2000). The demand for oil and gas is increasing faster than the growth rates of GDP in developing and developed countries. Petroleum is used as inputs for manufacturing, construction, agriculture, power generating, and service sectors.
2 Geological and Geophysical Modeling The first sets of data are generated through the geological and geophysical studies. The reservoirs are normally thousands of feet under the ground level, the size, the shape and the constituent of that reservoir are uncertain. The process of finding an oil-bearing rock and estimating the quality and quantity of the rock and fluid is referred to as the geological and geophysical activities. Geologists and geophysicists provide information about the reservoir and its RESERVOIR S I M U L A T O R - I N P U T / O U T P U T 35 contents that will lead to "geological and geophysical modeling" and then "reservoir characterization".